Migrating to Selenium? Know Your Costs, Challenges & Options

Migrating to SeleniumEnterprises are getting digitally powered and are responsible for ensuring digital empowerment for its customers/users. Insights from Gartner’s CIO Agenda (2016) Survey data suggests that digitalization is growing. Private sector CIOs expect that in the next five years digital revenues will grow from 16% to 37%, while the public sector expects a rise from 42% to 77% in digital processes.

In this pressing scenario, it is imperative to make your web applications robust and ensure desired functionality as well as GUI (Graphical User Interface). This will further guarantee the application’s performance in all possible scenarios.

Test Automation has been enabling enterprises to accelerate the testing process and attain maximum test coverage. Enterprises are increasingly automating their test efforts, for:

  • Code Reusability
  • Maximum Test coverage
  • Low maintenance cost
  • Least Manual intervention
  • Ease of Reporting

In practice, Test Automation can be compared to an instruction manual of a console-based game. If installed meticulously with proper instructions, it will prove to be an engaging interface between the user and the machine. It is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, and reporting mechanisms to execute effective automation testing.

Today, teams are increasingly moving towards licensed/open source Frameworks instead of considering a ‘build your own Framework’ approach.

With a clear view to cut costs and bring efficiency, companies are increasingly inclining towards Open Source automated testing tools than investing in commercial/licensed testing tool that implies increased costs. Open source testing instruments are loaded with significant features that enable swift automation testing of Web portals and software applications.

Why Selenium? Gauging the value.

That said, Selenium is getting popular as an automated testing tool for testing Websites, specifically for their functionality and GUI. There are some top significant reasons why enterprises prefer to use Selenium for Test Automation.

  • Capability to operate on almost every Operating System (OS)
  • Being an open source testing tool, it is cost-effective for automation testing
  • Supports multiple languages, namely, Python, Pearl, Ruby, PHP, .NET, and Java
  • Language used for developing the program need not be the same as the language used for the web application/website
  • Supports multiple browsers – Opera, Safari, Chrome, IE 6, 7, 8, and Mozilla Firefox
  • Has an active developer community, for active training with reduced costs
  • Capability to execute parallel tests by using various browsers across various devices, which helps cut down the test execution for big projects (when in progress)
  • With Selenium Integrated Development Environment, it gets easy to quickly create simple tests
  • Being cohesive, it provides an easy to use interface for developing automated tests as against any other testing tool
  • Provides components, which can be selected on the basis of complexity of the Web page
  • Provides scalability and sustainability in the long term

Migrating to Selenium? Know the challenges

Thanks to the freeware, enterprises are moving towards Open Source Test Automation tools, instead of investing in expensive commercial testing tools, like HP QTP, UFT, or TestComplete. Selenium Web Driver is by far the top choice for automation of browser based applications, supports execution multiple browsers, and integrate with tools for Continuous Integration.

If you are considering migration to an Open Source tool like Selenium for Test automation, you need to re-develop the scripts in Selenium from ground zero. In the present scenario, test automation scripts developed using licensed tools cannot be directly converted to Selenium.

A strong testing partner with decades of expertise can help strategize the migration and automate the process to convert recorded QTP scripts to Selenium scripts, by reducing the costs and time.

Automating your Selenium Migration process with an effective Selenium Migration Tool can help surge the conversion rate to almost 70%. By implementing automation, all the functional libraries, reusable scripts, and various calls can be converted quickly. This helps organizations to evade recurring licensing costs, upgrade costs and soaring service costs.

Know your options

While the market is flooded with commercial/licensed Test Automation Frameworks, Open Source Frameworks are getting popular. Thanks to the cost-effectiveness and customization that it offers.

There is an array of Open Source Frameworks in the market, to name a few – Serenity (Formally Thucydides, Robot Framewor, RedwoodHQ, Sahi, Galen Framework, and Gauge.

While these options exist, Selenium is by far the most popular and chosen one not just for Web Applications, but also for Mobile Application Testing. It is a cost effective tool, as it is an open source tool with no licensed costs and its features can be compared with HP Quick Test Pro (QTP), a commercial tool in the same category.

Selenium is evolving as a robust web application testing framework. With its open source licensing and the support that it offers to multiple browsers, languages, and platforms, it has become an integral component for various browser automation tools. Selenium and Selenium WebDriver are by far the most advanced test automation tools in the marketplace.

Referring to marketplace, vendors are increasingly stepping up and flawlessly integrating with Selenium for enhanced functionalities that enable you to accelerate your testing efforts.

To sum up

Gartner’s latest report on Test Automation tools (Magic Quadrant) does not mention Selenium, as the report focuses on tools that Gartner states “key areas”. Nonetheless, the industry has validated that open innovation is here to enable enterprises, as they would be able select the best and effective tools for every varying project with varying requirements.

Selenium is being implemented by popular online enterprises like Google and Facebook for testing their web interfaces. While it delivers an effective mechanism to generate test scripts, ensures functionality and brings reusability for the test scripts, Selenium Automation requires substantial technical expertise and support of third party tools to get completely functional. Moreover, with its ease of implementation at the GUI level, testers can fall into the trap of overusing the Framework for testing lower layers in the software stack.

Gallop is a Silver level sponsor of Selenium and authorised Sauce Labs partner. We have been providing strategic consulting services to clients in implementing test automation using Selenium. Our Test Automation CoE has been collaborating with global clients to jumpstart their automation efforts and implement a proven platform to bring sustainability and reduce maintenance.

Gallop’s IP driven tools and test automation services maximize the benefits of utilizing Selenium WebDriver. Our 300+ Selenium test automation experts contribute regularly to the growing Selenium open source test automation community.

Are you considering migration from a licensed tool like HP QTP, UFT, or TestComplete to Selenium? Know it all. We are hosting a Webinar on Migrate to Selenium on 29th September, 2016, 11AM EST, covering key insights on drivers for Migrating to Selenium, and challenges associated while embarking on this transformation journey. Reserve your slot NOW!


The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

Can Test Automation really help build sound Embedded Devices?



Tech portals are exploding with stories about Samsung Note7’s recall and exchange programs, which has led to Samsung’s stock plunging with losses as much as $14.3 billion (source: MarketWatch). The Korean electronics giant is now officially in talks and has already started working with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) for the recall and has recommended Note7 owners to switch off their devices and stop charging them.

As the investigation of the phenomenal recall progresses, Samsung UK stated, “Based on our investigation, we learned that there was an issue with the battery cell. An overheating of the battery cell occurred when the anode-to-cathode came into contact which is a very rare manufacturing process error.”

The disruptions caused by this disaster have been startling. For the records, a person’s Jeep reportedly got destroyed after Note7 explosion, while a 6 year old got severely injured. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued a strict warning to the airlines about the device.

New devices and gadgets are enthusing consumers every hour. If not literally speaking, a consumer can witness a new gadget launch every millisecond. Who can imagine that the new consumer friendly gadget lying in your Jeep or near your pillow could be lethal?

Maybe not just in sync, but a disaster like this amplifies the urgency of testing Embedded devices for robust framework and ultimately a market-ready product. When the competition is biting in and performance is everything, devising the best testing strategy seems to be the only way out!

What are Embedded Devices and where do we find them?

Embedded device is generally part of a system that serves a higher purpose. It is a specialized device meant to fit into one or specific few systems. Embedded devices or systems hold tremendous relevance and applications across various domains, namely, commercial, consumer, industrial, health-care, automotive, defence, and many more.

Embedded devices or systems can be found across product segments. It can be part of a heart rate monitor implanted within a wristwatch, which can be connected to a smartphone to display your heart’s health and in emergency situations alert your nearest contact with a call or message. A fitness band on your wrist that tracks your body movements and calories burned for a detailed health record.

While these were instances of some everyday examples, where they help connect human and machine behaviour, embedded systems implanted within home and kitchen appliances can communicate between each other. For instance, the refrigerator can notify the users that there is no milk or the vegetables are getting over. Specifically, Embedded systems make consumer devices smarter.

Nonetheless, its application as mentioned earlier cannot be confined to a particular domain. Embedded systems are designed particularly with some specific functionalities. They can be found in any/every device, right from smart cars, pacemakers, artificially intelligent drones, to the avionics in current day fighter jets/airplanes.

Testing Automation, not just for experience…for Excellence

With modern day smart devices dominating our everyday existence, testing these devices for a safe and sound interface is more than critical. Cars are being designed every second hour to get smarter and expectantly better. What if there is a software glitch and in midst of a stormy drive, the sensors stop and the system is unable to alert you about the tree log approaching your vehicle? Resulting in a sudden crash!

Embedded devices can be found in Avionic systems, Telecom, Logistics, Industrial, Medical, and many more Smart Devices. This shows the impact of testing Embedded devices to ensure excellence and seamless functionality.

Experts claim that the core concepts around automated testing for Embedded system is almost in line with its application for any other software. The specifics may vary from application to application or across platforms, but the underlying principles remain in line. At least, not radically different. Developers/Testers are known to look for patterns that can enable both while Coding and Testing, respectively. A similar pattern can be found while testing Embedded systems. How do you identify these patterns, is a puzzle that Test Automation solves.

Though Test Automation for embedded systems is broadly similar to many other applications, it is influenced by issues that are impacting the embedded world. To cite a few:

  • No specific design for testing
  • Resource and time constraints
  • A range of deployment architectures
  • Indefinite perspectives on implementation
  • Still evolving quality & certification parameters/standards
  • Access to execution platforms and multiple environments
  • Gap between the application development and actual execution platform

Implementing Test Automation can work wonders in accelerating the overall process. It can help improve the development process, which can be a task in the initial phase. It proves to be an absolute pay-off in the long run. It can be executed faster and in a recurring manner, which turns out to be cost-effective for products where performance has to be checked under various situations.

Specifically, in an Agile environment it helps to keep going back and repeating the tests to ensure functionality. It further helps in enhancing the test coverage.

While testing Embedded systems, the consistency of the behaviour/outcome needs to be tested. Automating the tests, brings efficiency and helps get results consistently with repeated tests. Test automation provides a reliable platform for your testing needs.

Simulating a particular user environment can be downright helpful in testing Embedded devices. Though its benefits are yet to be established, executing automated tests under an emulated environment can help derive close to reliable results of the system’s functioning. Repeated tests can be executed in a particular set-up to get results and confirm the system’s functional aspects and performance.

Test Automation helps you attain quality and at the same time helps you get your product faster to the market. The need to be there before the consumer asks, is every brand’s dream, but at the cost of compromising quality, security, safety?

iPhone7 has just stepped out of its cradle, but the market is already buzzing with rumours around iPhone8. That’s the pressing need of the hour!

Gallop’s test automation strategy enables enterprises to increase release velocity, reduce time to market and reduce overall testing effort resulting in significant return on investment (ROI). Connect with our experts to leverage the Automation Center of Excellence (ACoE) backed by a decade of experience in executing test automation engagements for global clients & a large pool of test automation experts.








The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

Testing the Unknown. Is Performance Testing the Answer?


Self-driven cars, self-instructing drones, or Tony Stark’s super-competent computer J.A.R.V.I.S. is soon becoming a reality for the world. Yes, the next thing you own could be any artificially intelligent gadget from the famous Marvel comic collection or a time and space crashing machine from Disney’s Tomorrowland.

The future has it!

News is out and twitter is trending with photos and videos of Google’s Burrito Delivery drones getting officially tested in Virginia. The drones are being tested for the capacity of weight it can carry, overall management, and coordination. With new age technologies being implemented for everyday jobs, one day you can surely expect a drone hovering over your head to deliver a pizza.

Literally speaking, testing performance ensures that the pizza is delivered in your hands and does not go down the chimney!

Uber is just gearing up to introduce a fleet of driverless cars in Pittsburgh, a former steel town and is on the way of becoming the first city to explore autonomous vehicles. It has planned to use around 100 modified Volvo sport utility vehicles for passenger trials with human monitor behind the wheel. Kind of ensuring convergence of human and technology. It proved to be a 21st century technology leap when Pittsburgh authorities helped the company to lease a large plot near the city’s riverfront to build a testing track.

A city of 306,000 seems like an ideal ground for Silicon Valley’s wildest experiments. Too soon to say so! It has also triggered worries amongst the populace regarding safety and regulations for testing a premature technology.

Is cynicism a prelude to any innovative venture?

How a city reacts and accepts disruptive tech experiments like driverless cab services is definitely a phenomenon to watch out. At the same time, there are quite a few tech and auto companies, who are testing their own driverless fleets in cities like California and Michigan and going through their own set of challenges.

Perfection is the key. The very reason testing is taking a front seat in the overall development process. Specifically, Performance testing makes a large impact by determining the effect of any new technology/device by gauging various factors. If we can say so, Performance testing refutes the hands-off approach to overcome every possible glitch.

In case of Uber, the tested cars are already on the roads and picking up commuters in Pittsburgh. What is the mechanism if the vehicle stops mid-way in traffic? Is there automated messaging to the base station? What is the contingency plan for any such possible breakdown?

Performance testing helps you answer ‘ifs & whys’ of every glitch that you may expect.

Performance testing has been helping CTOs identify, evaluate and authenticate the speed, consistency, and dependability of the system to finally deliver a bug-free software/device. It covers an entire spectrum of factors that determine quality, load, stress, and soak testing to volume testing at various stages of a software’s development. It further helps test at various levels of the application to measure factors like capacity analysis and server response time, risk management testing, which can act effectively to confirm the performance of the new age devices.

It helps CTOs/development teams monitor and assess critical aspects like response-time, infrastructure capabilities, Network bandwidth, risks involved, and much more that can determine seamless functioning. A wholesome testing approach helps address performance defects and helps meet sporadic demands at every stage of the SDLC.

Performance testing methodologies further check predictive performance of an application to run flawlessly and rush faster to the market.

With perspectives and tools evolving every day, experts are effectively leveraging open source performance engineering tools to slice off the turnaround time by monitoring the overall Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) process.

Soak Tests, Load Tests, or Stress Tests?

New age technologies and tools have been increasingly posing a challenge for the testing community. A particular type of testing or performance testing mechanism might not help to deliver a particular result. However, what could work magically, is a combination of various approaches for deriving the desired outcome.

Load tests and Stress tests have been increasingly used to evaluate a software or device’s stability, scalability, and responsiveness under excessively coercing and stretching parameters. Devices that are bound to determine the future of a particular service domain need to get tried and tested under equally stressful real-time environment with all possible unruly factors.

Soak testing is considered a type of Stress test to mainly check the response of a particular aspect under test or mostly an emulated environment over a particular time span. Inferences derived during Soak tests help improve the characteristics of the application/device.

Brands can possibly implement Soak tests for months together and simultaneously apply external factors to gauge the performance. This further confirms the system’s consistency and various other performance aspects over a longer and stretched time span, particularly evaluating a system’s stability over a much loaded period of time.

Leveraging the Virtual Environment

Working in an emulated environment can work wonders while testing services/devices that require a lot of factors to work together. Service Virtualization helps developers and testers test applications/software in a constantly evolving environment. It helps test against a wide range of functional and performance factors with a minimum set-up.

With service virtualization, you can simulate the performance of every dependent factor and control them. It further helps to determine the impact of the ‘virtualized’ dependencies to assess various high risk factors required to test the Application Under Test (AUT).

An experienced and capable testing partner can offer a virtualized Test environment as per your test needs and can scale them as per your requirement.

A comprehensive test strategy helps bring down the scepticism towards every innovative attempt and increase acceptance. What you need is a reliable testing partner to work with and devise the best possible approach.

While an inclusive Performance testing strategy will continue to kill the bug around all tech innovations, being a ‘Doubting Thomas’ always helps to bring the best from your testing efforts.

Gallop’s Performance Engineering & Testing teams hold massive experience in providing cutting edge services to global clients. Gallop is equipped with a dedicated Performance Testing CoE that focuses on providing solutions around performance testing and engineering. Connect with us for a complete performance testing strategy that accelerated time to market without compromising quality.




The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

Is your Mobile Testing Strategy good enough for the Marketplace?


With a funding round of $1.1bn (£850m) at a valuation of $45bn, Xiaomi was overwhelmingly the most valuable start-up in 2014. Shockingly, just 18 months since the last funding a new analysis indicated that Xiaomi’s worth fell down to a massive low of less than $4bn. This left everyone guessing.

One of the key reasons identified was that the brand could not take a step further enough to perceive and effectively address market / consumer needs. This dipped its market share, which competition took away.

IDC figures stated that Xiaomi saw its smartphone sales drop by almost 40% in China during Q2 of 2016 as compared to the corresponding quarter in 2015. Ironically, the overall Chinese market grew by almost 4.6% during this period. Report suggests that Xiaomi’s share got eaten up by players like Huawei, Oppo, and Vivo, who saw some soaring growth numbers.

Keeping secrets in the tech world could be a task, but standing by your brand’s claims and proving that the speculated compelling features are good to be true is every tech brand’s dream.

Great features and greater surprises. Apple/Iphone launches have it all! Prelude for an Iphone launch marks an exciting journey for the global media as well as tech enthusiasts. It brings us a series of stories and guess works full of exciting speculations. The recent Iphone7 launch has been no different. Iphone7 brought to its global fans as well as naysayers a distinct surprise by removing the headphone jack. As expected, made the Apple statement loud and clear.

Whether it is breaking the clutter or making a distinct statement, what makes a brand stand confident in the marketplace? It is the unbeatable claim of the brand to offer its customers a robust system. For instance, Nokia continued to be a trusted name for its loyal customer base even post the Microsoft acquisition. However, lagged in terms of rapidly evolving customer expectations.

Steady…Sturdy…but sleek…How can your mobile device have it all? The next question in line: Is your device tested enough to be trusted?

Gartner report states that in 2013 a revenue of about $26 billion dollars was generated from 102 billion mobile app downloads in 2013, and it is expected that by 2017 over 268 billion downloads per year. Interaction of the applications with the device will define the ultimate experience for the customer.

This definitely validates the need to stay alert and stay prepared for an ever-demanding market and ever-pressing competition.

Opening Pandora’s box

Mobile Device Testing and Mobile App testing is tricky and has to play by market rules and changing dynamics. Testers are challenged by various Operating Systems (OS) and equally across various versions of the OS, multiple devices, screen dimensions of all shapes and sizes, various carriers and combinations of data bandwidths offering various speed limits/capacities.

With the rising popularity and need for mobile testing, there are endless number of testing tools made available in the market, each one with an enhanced feature and capability to consider. There is a dramatic rise in the number of devices in the market, across various price ranges. So, when it comes to Mobile device testing, the key challenge is to decide on the right device in a given time frame.

Whether it is automated or manual testing, deciding on the mobile device for testing is the first step to get it right!

With a universe of devices and platforms in the marketplace, it is more than inevitable to produce a bug-free application within stringent timelines and at the same time consider every minute spec. Whether it is Appium for Native apps or Selenium for Web apps, collaborating with the right testing partner with the required expertise is your key to success and better RoI.

Online or Offline, Compatibility is the need

Native applications run on a specific mobile device hardware, which can operate with or without a data connection, namely, Kindle or any gaming applications. These applications might work without data connectivity, however, they might also invariably require data connection. They are structured to operate across all platforms with the same basic code, and are apps that need not be typically on an App store, but merely a web application.

Hybrid apps are applications that are available on an App store and are specifically designed for the Mobile devices. However, they depend and can require a connection with a website or a web-based database (like API) to function and give the necessary outcome. Prominent example is the Wikipedia app that needs an active connection with Wikipedia.org, or a NetBanking application that needs connectivity to the Web application.

In situations and scenarios like these, testing the device for a bug-free and secure user interface is a much needed investment. It empowers you to take a definite leap and innovate by industry standards.

Irrespective of the OS, it is important to understand and improve every application’s functionality across devices and its interoperability with the other factors, namely, Data consumption, battery consumption, and overall UI/UX.

UX and GUI

Smartphones with their touch screen features have redefined user experience. All started with the iPhone, where not just the hardware but even the well-integrated GUI worked for the device.

Testing helps you ensure the application’s responsiveness and the right set of reflexes on the device. Is this the way the application has to work? How will the user respond to it? What if there is distortion in the data connectivity?

Incidentally, the challenges faced by Mobile App testers are similar to the challenges faced by Web/Desktop App testers. So, a similar set of testing tools can be considered, with additional tools like emulators to cover a larger spectrum of devices.

Emulators Vs. Real Devices Vs. a Device Cloud

While Emulators work for user interface testing and quality assurance at the early stage, using real devices helps in performance testing. Industry experts suggest using emulators to make the process cost-effective, however, another school of thought promotes using the actual devices for real-time results.

Setting up a Cloud Testing environment enables you with a mobile set-up that is available anytime and 24*7. A Device Cloud is hosted on-premise and rents out devices for testing mobile apps on requirement basis.

These Cloud providers have access to the latest mobile devices and can offer a great deal of advantage for brands who wish to test their applications on the latest enterprise mobile devices.

Emulated Device clouds also help test scalability of the device to handle many simultaneous requests. Additionally, Device clouds with physical hardware offer further inputs on various interconnected factors in the overall functioning.

All in all, the set of challenges in Mobile Testing are massive and are getting redefined every hour. The trick is to test various patterns and choose the best combination suitable for your market needs. Agile Testing is a sure winner, as it takes a grab of the situation at every stage and if required, redefines the strategy for better results.

Choosing a right testing partner with the required strategy diminishes your challenges and helps you go the extra mile and sustain in the marketplace. Gallop’s cloud-enabled Mobile Device Test Lab offers access to over 600+ latest devices. The lab is equipped with a diverse set of devices that cover various Operating Systems (iOS, Android, Windows and Blackberry) and Smartphone brands (Apple, Samsung, LG, Motorola, Lenovo, HTC, etc.) Connect with us for a strategy that gets you ready and sustain well in the marketplace.





The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

How Digital Assurance & Testing Help Build Agile Enterprises?

Digital assurance and testingPokemon Go has been creating buzz since July 2016 post its launch in select countries and is by far the most popular mobile game in the US history. Numbers and popularity charts could be working out for Nintendo, however, some enterprise-level IT security managers have a different take on this app. While the trend of getting hi-end mobile devices and related accessories at workplaces continues, gaming apps like Pokemon Go are fizzing concerns around Server hacks, unauthorized permissions, and more.

Though Pokemon Go seems like a recent and peculiar threat, industry enthusiasts opine that any such application loaded on a personal device within an enterprise can pose a potent risk.

There is a chaotic hustle around making enterprises/workplaces more Agile and flexible to drive productivity and ease of operation for employees. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is considered as a catalyst for making enterprise more user-friendly, flexible and more responsive. While we say so, the major challenge is for the IT security teams with issues concerning the overall implementation of policies and effective security measures to determine and manage security lapses.

As they say, Bring Your Own Device; Not your own Virus!

Ready for an Agile boost?

The Agile Manifesto published in 2001 by a niche group of IT leaders evaluates the core principles of an Agile set-up for any enterprise. Fundamental question posed, Is your enterprise ready for the Agile run?

The underlying principles mentioned to asses or determine the impact of Agile implementation within an enterprise are organizational culture, working style and overall attitude, which will prove to be a digital enabler in the current high-speed, competent, and self-made digital economy.

With phenomenal changes across world economies and overall customer experience, businesses and organizations are being pushed towards the edge of the profit churning cycle. There is a growing need to redefine the way the workforce operates and delivers. Policies and processes that enable speed and better accessibility will gain momentum in serving their customers (both internal and external) better.

Thanks to the changing dynamics of consumer expectations, businesses are getting more flexible and robust with their systems at the same time.

Getting ‘digitally’ Agile

A recent Gartner research infers that almost 42% of organizations are expected to increase the spending on mobile app development by an average 31% in 2016. Digital technologies are today connecting enterprises, redefining the work dynamics, and addressing almost every aspect of the business operations.

At a recently held ASEAN Business and Investment Summit (ABIS) 2016 in Vientiane, Laos, President and Managing Director of Bosch Southeast Asia Martin Hayes said, “We need effective leadership to overcome the challenges in an uncertain environment. Both business and political leaders should possess the knowledge and capability to be agile, adaptable and resilient” The session was based on the theme ‘The Future of Technology – Focusing on the Digital Economy’.

As the work environment gets digital and more connected, there is a focussed requirement for flawless user experience and robust security measures. What integrates and orchestrates every digital element together is ‘Digital Assurance’.

Digital Assurance enables every device, application, Web / Mobile platform to interact seamlessly within the ecosystem. The ultimate outcome is smooth and undivided user/ customer engagement that leads to the desired action. At the same time, the user should be assured about the data and system’s security from any probable hacking attempt.

Taking into perspective the security aspects and user experience, the need for Digital Assurance and testing has taken a massive leap. It is a critical piece in the overall Digital Transformation and Digital Assurance jigsaw.

With digital technology touching every aspect of the business operations, Digital Assurance & testing has got highlighted as a front-end function that is rapidly influencing the product / application’s design and development.

Digital Assurance & Testing for sustained and secure growth strategy

In 2015, Starbucks faced a major software glitch due to an ‘internal failure’, which resulted in 60% of stores in the US & Canada getting shut down. The failure took place during a routine refresh, where stores were unable to process payments and at a point of time even gave away the coffee for free. Practically, the registers were used to place orders and store cash. Eventually, it accumulated extensive data to carry out tasks like processing credit cards, placing orders at kitchens and keep a track of the loyalty programs.

Instances like these can cause nightmare for international brands that are digitally connected and depend on the digital platform for their survival. Assuring the performance of such systems with robust testing strategy is indispensable.

 An enterprise can get Agile, but at what cost?

Answer to this ever-provoking question is Digital Assurance. Understanding the implications and benefits of Digital Assurance & testing in an organization’s digital landscape is critical and definitely the need of the hour!

Concurrently, it is important to ensure that the right testing strategy is adopted to get required results. Here, we try and address a few of them:

  • Quality models for the digital era:

The Digital era is redefining the role of testing in the overall development landscape. With new age methods like Shift-left, testing is taking a holistic view and understanding various dimensions of consumer experience. Resultantly, there is a growing need to adopt the best and contemporary testing technologies to check issues/bugs within the digital sphere.

  • Omni-channel testing:

Omni-channel application testing focuses on the ensuring enhanced digital experience of the users. Aspects like performance, ease of use and functionality play a key role for any successful user experience. Omni-channel interactions work profoundly for connected devices and multiple digital touch points.

  • Testing solutions for agile projects:

Within an agile environment, the testing needs have to align with the intrinsic requirements. Test Automation with Service Virtualization work effectively to minimize the glitches and minimize downtime.

  • Cloud for testing:

Cloud and virtual environment for testing are increasingly getting effective for testing applications / solutions that can accelerate performance and ensure seamless integration. So, there is a growing demand for cloud-based and virtualized environment for testing large scale enterprise applications.

Enterprises are getting more connected with the sole push to get more agile. Digital Assurance is an ever-rising need for ensuring performance in this connected environment. In terms of testing strategy, there will always be a compulsive need to bring quality, automation and foresight while deploying business critical applications.

Gallop has worked with enterprises of all shapes and sizes and has brought them to speed in this digitally charged and connected ecosystem. Global enterprises have leveraged Gallop’s frameworks for continuous test automation and performance testing to improve their Quality Assurance and Testing practices.

Connect with Gallop experts to get your business digitally Agile.

The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

Resilience is critical. How can Security Testing build it?

How can Security Testing build it?

What is ‘Pegasus’?

August 25, 2016 Apple rushed across to all iPhone users with a security update to prevent their handsets from getting infected by the ‘Pegasus’ spyware. ‘Pegasus’ has been considered by experts by far the ‘most sophisticated’ software created to infect and spy into smartphones. The software has been created by an Israeli company, the NSO Group to target Ahmed Mansoor, a prominent dissident in the United Arab Emirates.

This news and discovery is an absolute shocker for not just the iPhone users, but also for smartphone users around the globe and the overall cyber security world. It has raised eyebrows and questioned the secure interface available for our mobile devices.

Let’s take the larger picture into perspective.

Economies around the world are today going through phenomenal changes, resulting in chaos on the political edge. Technology is being unethically abused and exploited as a weapon in these modern day wars. Vulnerabilities in terms of technology and devices are on the rise, building up the ‘insecurity’ scare.

Is Security Testing an answer to determine and bring down the ‘vulnerability’ scare?

Yes, it could be an answer for some obvious reasons:

  • Security testing ensures that the application or software builds a secure interface. Practically, it checks the software / application for its vulnerability to external attacks, namely hacking of the system or unauthorized log in.
  • It ensures integrity of the data at hand and at the same time checks the required functionality.
  • Security testing checks and determines any information leakage with various mechanisms like encryption, firewall, applying a range of software, etc.
  • It determines and helps salvage the software / application in an event of critical attack.

Essentially, Security testing covers a gamut of security testing concerns, namely, privacy, integrity, credibility, accessibility, and authorization.

 The market for mobile applications is already booming and will see further growth in times to come. It is estimated by market forces that, by 2017 over 268 billion App downloads and $77 billion in revenue will be grossed by the App market. With 46% of applications being paid for, the monetary health of the industry seems strong.

With Apps being installed and used for a range of jobs and intentions, having a robust testing framework for Security Testing is indispensable. With reference to Application Security Testing, experts have validated that interactive testing holds more relevance for estimating an application’s security factors.

Unlike Static and Dynamic tools, Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST) operates differently. While Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST) solutions test the application’s external factors (outside-in) to identify security issues, Static Application Security Testing (SAST) solutions test the internal factors (inside-out) by checking the source code, byte code, or binaries.

IAST makes both the ends meet and covers up for the gaps created by DAST & SAST.

IAST works with information from the application during runtime, which involves data flow, controls, libraries, and connections in order to effectively identify vulnerabilities. This is the very reason why interactive testing works successfully for ensuring application’s security.

Considering the application is tested while it runs, IAST helps figure out how any situation can be salvaged in case the application breaks down due to its possible vulnerabilities. In a way, IAST works towards determining situations of crisis and builds up resilience.

Likewise, a software security glitch can lead to security lapses across any industry and not just for the mobile devices / applications market. The intensity of Security lapses could multiply for highly sensitive sectors like defence, automobiles, and Banking.

In 2013, Nissan recalled a set of vehicles to address an issue related to air bag seat sensors. A similar recall was done even in 2014, resulting in almost 1 million vehicles getting recalled from the market. Further investigation cleared that the issue with the airbags was due to a software failure, where the sensor was unable to recognize that an adult was seated in the passenger’s seat. As a result, the airbag would not open in case of a crash. This issue just could not get resolved and got listed in the worst software bugs of 2015. The case was further investigated by the U.S. safety officials.

Such glitches create a sorry figure for globally acclaimed brands and can claim serious fall for the business. On the whole, this can lead to a massive blow for the brand’s credibility in the marketplace.

A range of robust Security testing tools combined with a comprehensive testing strategy can empower enterprises / brands to not only identify the critical glitches within the software, but also help the application / software rebound and recover crucial data.

Gallop has worked with enterprises and brands to address business-critical security challenges with their applications / software. With key focus on Network security, Mobile application security, Cloud application security, and Source code review, Gallop’s 5 step security test lifecycle helps build your application’s security.

The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

How to Amplify the Impact of Virtual Reality with a Robust Test Strategy?

How to amplify the impact of Virtual Reality with a robust Test strategy

Beyond the usual, today Virtual Reality (VR) is being leveraged to generate empathy. Unicef is leveraging VR to convey the quantum of work and the intensity of the crisis situation, which goes beyond just reading stories and viewing images. It is being considered as an immensely powerful tool to generate support and give human voice to the initiatives undertaken by Unicef around the world. A very recent instance is the Syrian refugee crisis and the work done around it.

This validates and establishes the impact of VR, which goes beyond mere gaming and infotainment. 2016 has been considered by experts and analysts as the breakthrough year for the VR industry. According to Deloitte, the industry is estimated to break the $1 bn barrier for the first time. Goldman Sachs forecasts that the VR market worth can grow up to $80 bn by 2025 as the opportunities get bigger and bigger.

With some globally popular brands setting their foot in the space, VR is getting its share in the mainstream. Samsung launched its Gear VR headset, Facebook is creating buzz with its Oculus Rift, HTC’s Vive has released, and there are many more to come our way. While these are some high-end options, there are some cheap options available to give that ‘experiential’ value to the interested folks.

How well it is going to be embraced in the mainstream, boils down to its acceptance levels. Any new technology when introduced in the market tends to be costly and sometimes exorbitant. However, there are brands that believe in offering the audience a test drive with the new technology.

Testing and experience goes hand in hand for Google Cardboard. It is giving users the edge to experience VR on a low-cost platform, which has been questioned by VR enthusiasts.

So be it!

Experiential approach in testing goes way ahead in the technology curve to create enthusiasm and drive acceptance for any novel concept. It is a much needed step to sustain the interest in the nascent VR market.

Interestingly, The New York Times is embracing the idea, as it will distribute over a million Google Cardboards with its Sunday print subscribers. This is a classic instance of how Media whether traditional or new always helps and propagates the idea of ‘testing the NEW’.

While testing the device is one thing, testing the applications is of greater significance. Google Cardboard has come up with some applications like, Cardboard Camera App that facilitates a stereoscopic panorama to view with Google Cardboard. Similarly, Orbulus is a must-have VR smartphone app that takes you around the globe with a massive 216MB download. These are some extremely striking examples of applications that are mostly free and out there in the marketplace to test consumer behavior and response.

Likewise, there are simple tools in the marketplace for techies to test the readiness of the PC for VR. For example, SteamVR Performance Test is a simple tool that helps evaluate your PC’s compatibility with the VR application. Alternatively, experts are considering and evaluating the use of Test Automation with required mix of Unit tests, Acceptance tests, and Regression tests of the code.

With a market that promises growth and serious investment at the same time, what makes testing these applications so critical? Specifically, how critical is testing for a VR app?

Testing essentially confirms the correct or expected behavior of any particular application or device at hand. VR applications are expected to, and are practically being implemented across various industry domains. Testing of VR applications has its own nuances, due to its complexity and aspects pertaining to human-machine interface.

Manual Testing is considered for evaluating the application’s user interaction and automated testing is implemented for internal application components. Manual tests specifically help to gauge the user’s interaction with the applications and whether it leads to the desired outcome.

User interfaces for VR applications are much more complex and must consider a different testing approach. It does not implement usual interaction handler to process the data from the device; alternately, it processes the device’s input directly. The purpose behind this is to comprehend the overall impact of the environment on the device and how all this assimilates for the user in the virtual environment. In order to process such high degree of interaction and weigh the input and corresponding output, automating a chunk of tests is absolutely indispensable.

Experts say that there is no specific or accepted pattern for automated testing of VR applications. Currently, the industry is implementing existing software engineering practices and applying them for testing VR applications. Considering the high intensity of human-machine interface, conventional testing processes can fall short of meeting the requirements.

What is recommended, is a comprehensive testing architecture that addresses specific issues concerning the testing needs for VR applications.

A number of companies across sectors are integrating their VR applications within their sphere of work. For instance, Ford designers and engineers are leveraging VR to test elements of new cars and have been saving around $8 million in a year. Airbus is using it for showcasing Demo for customers. On the critical end, Surgeons at UCLA are implementing Surgical Theatre’s medical VR technology and Oculus Rift to test-run some extremely sensitive surgeries before the actual operation.

All thanks to the diverse and widespread application of VR, today it is being leveraged by leading global institutions like Unicef to showcase their work to corporate partners, foundations and philanthropists to garner the required support for a much larger cause.

Gallop Solutions has been empowering enterprises and brands to increase release velocity, reduce time to market and cut overall testing effort, resulting in higher return on investment (ROI). Gallop Test Automation Accelerator Kit (GTAAK) comprises of pre-built test automation scripts, utilities, process assets and frameworks, and has helped enterprises to implement successful test automation initiatives. Contact us to know more.


The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

Is Implementing Digital Transformation an ‘Olympic’ task?

Is Implementing Digital Transformation an ‘Olympic’ task

Rio Olympics 2016 enthralled the global audience and brought together a ‘connected’ fervour. Media across the world and across diverse communication platforms was flooded with scores, interesting updates, candid photographs and records of exemplary performances by participants. Whether it was Usain Bolt’s radiant smile, Simone Biles’ spectacular performance or a standing ovation for the Refugee Olympic team, Rio 2016 proved to grow way bigger than a Sports event that touched every individual and every household.

Thanks to the seamless and consistent flow of information from various media channels, online portals, and social media posts, Rio 2016 has helped create the larger canvas of ‘Olympic’ victory for each one of us.

The changing nature of managing, executing, and transmitting international sports events has digitally connected each one of us in terms of ‘information accessibility’.

Creating a connected environment is no less than a herculean task. For instance, one of the major challenges with Olympic Games is to orchestrate the activities of 200,000 employees, addressing 4 billion customers and operating 24×7 in a new country every four years. With all its global appeal, it involves over 15,000 athletes, 30,000 media, and flowing registrations. Most critical is the kind of attention it gets globally, which justifies the overall ‘stress’ factor.

What if the results pouring in from various sources are lost? What if there is an issue in terms of online bookings for a match? These software glitches have no space in an international event that draws high-octane energy from the global viewers.

Disappointing the global audience is just out of question!

A report released by IDC mentions that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) wanted to bring about Digital Transformation with the sole purpose to transform the overall experience of these games into a connected and digitally-enabled holistic experience for the global audience.

Digital Transformation in all possible ways endeavours to digitally enable your customers.

The term Digital Transformation brings a lot of social implications, where the digital needs of the customer drive the transformation process and bring about the required paradigm shift for an organization / event. This exactly determined the focus for Olympic Games this year; the need of the global audience.

Digital transformation process for any business revolves around 2 basic aspects – Customer experience & Customer journey.

From an IT partner’s perspective, what does Digital Transformation for a global sports event imply?

  • The core IT infrastructure does not collapse and cannot be a reason for delay in announcement of the results anytime during the games. Importantly, critical information about the results cannot be lost.
  • Better flexibility, agility, reliability, scalability with the processes, resulting in overall cost effectiveness.
  • Automated transmission of results within seconds across the world and across diverse media platforms.
  • 24*7 support for portal that supports the recruitment and training of 70,000 volunteers, and the application that processes lakhs of accreditation passes for the event.

An IT partner is expected to make all this possible in an environment where numerous IT systems integrate and are connected to a virtual system to deliver the desired customer experience. This implies implementation of Cloud, Analytics, Mobility solutions, and Social Media technology to enhance both customer experience and the IT infrastructure supporting the overall action.

When multiple systems need to team up and work peacefully, Integration Testing plays an important role in IT testing and helps achieve major milestones related to delivery on time and on budget. For instance, during the Olympic Games 2016, the IT partner changed its testing approach. Instead of building IT systems at centralized locations and later moving to the host city, the virtual servers were utilized to test the systems centrally and were later deployed digitally to the actual venue.

This resulted in increased availability of time for test systems, boosted flexibility to shift virtual servers between the central location and the host cities rather than shipping them physically. It further improved the availability of testing environments by almost 10%. Synchronously, setting up the Integration Testing Lab at a centralized location led to further cost reduction. This resulted in reducing the dependency on physical infrastructure for ensuring flawless performance.

As known and acknowledged, Mobility solutions in various shapes and sizes have offered a transformed experience to viewers during the recent Games. Billions of connected devices were used to watch real-time events and monitor results. This resulted in increasing demand for ‘over-the-top content’, which triggered the need to partner with local Internet service providers and physical facilities like WiFi. Ultimately, all these arrangements had to get tested for its performance and functionality to provide uninterrupted experience to the receivers.

Apart from the scalability and flexibility factor, Cloud was leveraged to bring cost effectiveness, Analytics were implemented as part of security monitoring, mobility solutions helped deliver event results in real time, and social technology was used to improve the workflow related to collaboration.

All these aspects together enabled Digital Transformation, which was ultimately possible with rigorous testing of systems for seamless integration and smooth functioning.

While testing various aspects for Digital Transformation it is important to collaborate with a strong testing partner who is capable of offering a complete Digital Assurance platform. The testing process can be automated with re-usable assets and set frameworks. So, the comprehensive testing process covers every component in the chain that is meant to bring about Digital Transformation for the business and serve the customer better each time.

Global enterprises of various shapes and sizes have worked with Gallop experts to automate and transform their business processes and reach out effectively to their end customers. Digital Transformation in the current context implies business transformation, which is possible with a comprehensive test framework. Connect with Gallop Solutions and revolutionize your testing process for delivering desired customer experience.



The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

Selenium Test Automation Success Reasons & Best Practices

Selenium Test Automation Success Reasons & Best Practices

It is a natural tendency globally that all development groups test their build before deploying and employ testers to identify all the bugs ahead of the release. Manual testing was proving to be the least effective owing to the manual errors and also due to the limitations in testing everything manually. As a solution to this situation, certain repeated tests were automated to increase the testing efficiency.

Automation testing has become critical as it improves accuracy, provides test coverage in short time, and at a low cost. The latest research statistics add more weight to the increasing need of automation testing. As per Transparency Market Research (TMR), the global test automation market, which in 2015 had a valuation of US $12.91 bn, is expected to reach US $85.84 bn by the end of 2024. As per TMR, the market for test automation in North America, which stood at US $5.70 bn in 2015, is expected to be worth US $29.78 bn by 2024. The region is thus likely to exhibit a CAGR of 20.3% during the forecast period. The region also held approximately 44% in the overall market in 2014. It is also expected to report lucrative prospects for security testing. The rapid deployment of mobile applications and Software as a Service (SaaS) on cloud will be dominant in driving market for test automation in North America.

There are multiple options available for testing automation to choose from based on the requirement, size of the project, turnaround time so on. Licensed automation tools such as QTP, WinRunner, Test complete, Ranorex, QA Wizard Pro, Silk Test, QA Test and Rational Robot are available to perform functional, regression and performance testing. Open source automation tools such as Selenium, SOAP UI, Robotium, WebDriver, Jmeter, Junit so on are also available to perform functional, regression and performance testing.

As per TMR report, sale from the functional testing segment is expected to be highest during the forecast period (2015 to 2024), followed by mobile testing and QA process design. The functional testing segment accounted for the dominant share of 23.2% in the market in 2015. It is expected to significantly gain from the continuously growing agile development practices and open source tools will have a dominant role to play. Normally companies/testers prefer open source tools to perform functional testing, and Selenium functional testing tool is considered the best open source tool available to test web applications at no cost.


The main reason for the success of Selenium is that the tests can be coded in any number of programming languages, they can be run directly in web browsers, and work across operating systems.

The second reason for the success of Selenium as the most powerful automation tool are its features that are simple to use – its capable user interfaces help meet 90% needs of web application testers. Document object model (DOM) level testing, great extensibility and flexibility, support for multiple browsers, accommodating object oriented programming languages like JAVA, .NET, Ruby, Perl, PHP, etc., provides the option of using wide range of IDEs based on the choice of development languages and more of these make it a preferred choice for many testers.

Best Practices

Based on Gallop’s experience of leveraging Selenium for test automation, we recommend the following practices:

Best PracticesUsing Selenium, we at Gallop help clients leverage benefits of custom Selenium Test Automation frameworks. Leveraging proprietary test accelerators, we jump start test automation and reduce the automation cycle-time. Gallop’s IP-led Selenium Automation Framework is a proven and tested framework having 90+ function libraries to directly jump start your test automation projects or complement your existing test automation suite.

We are hosting a Webinar on Sneak Peek into Selenium 3.0 on 31st August 2016, 11AM EST that will cover the Selenium road map beyond 3.0, that is, 4.0, and 5.0. RSVP for the webinar today!

Selenium Test Automation Success: Reasons & Best Practices













The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.

Is your Enterprise Big Data Tested?

Is your Enterprise Big Data Tested

The Startup buzz is gaining grounds and it has transformed the way enterprises strategize and operate. Startups are known to leverage various technologies that boost cost effectiveness, efficiency and time to market. For instance, thanks to the Open source platforms, today Startups have access to the best Big Data infrastructure and testing tools at ‘zero’ cost. They run a mile further in optimizing the Cloud to reap the most from their Big Data investments.

Big Data implementation for enterprises can work wonders. What you need is a robust application that is rigorously twisted and tested to fit your organization’s requirements and objectives.

IDC (a market research firm) estimates 50% increase in revenues from the sale of Big Data and business analytics software, hardware, and services between 2015 and 2019. Big Data and Analytics Sales are expected to reach $187 Billion by 2019.

How does Big Data Empower Businesses?

Big Data has proved to be a game changer for American retail stores, as they have been able to further analyze and effectively segment the customer database and market. This has enabled to create customized marketing campaigns and offer relevant deals. Further, they have been equipped with information to schedule their deals and offers as per the data drawn by the application.

It is further predicted that government organizations across the globe will leverage Big Data to radically reduce government expenditure. High profile statisticians and officials will be replaced with Data Scientists to derive the required numbers.

After the super successful and intense Climate Change talks in Paris, there is going to be a whole lot of difference in the way Climate Change is perceived. It will not be alleged as a matter of threat, but an enabler for Market Capitalization purely on the basis of Big Data technologies. For instance, Big Data will analyze climate change views and expert comments across Social Media and Internet, which will help determine the impact rather than just depend on the conventional Meteorological reports.

Big Data implementations have brought remarkable results for enterprises who knew and kept their conviction towards the business objectives. However, it can be a major disappointment for organizations that miss out on the underlying purpose of Big Data implementation.

If the data is managed methodologically, it can empower an organization to make informed choices while venturing in the market place.

What does Big Data Testing Entail?

Big Data testing involves authenticating various data processes and not just the features. Performance and Functional testing work effectively for Big Data applications. While testing their applications, QA engineers process three types of data – Batch, Real time, and Interaction.

Collaborating with an experienced testing partner is absolutely key, as it is important to devise a high level test strategy. Moreover, before the testing starts, it is important to check the data quality and confirm related factors like data accuracy, duplication, and validate whether the existing data is all-inclusive.

In this article, we would like to highlight some prominent benefits of Big Data testing, assuring desired results that can enable informed decision making and ensure higher ROI.

Eases Downtime

The emerging concept of Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD) and implementation of Cloud services facilitates anytime, anywhere access to enterprise applications. Due to this there is a rising dependency on the organization’s data to run these applications. This sometimes affects the performance of the application. So, it is important to test the Big Data applications that are expected to be available for employees 24*7. It will avoid bugs, enhance data quality, and ensure seamless functioning of the application. In summary, reduce any expected downtime.

Eases Operating with Large Data sets

With Big Data Applications, development begins with implementation of small data set and then moves on to the larges data sets. As expected, the glitches occurring with small data sets are way lesser than with larger ones as the development process matures. With a view to avoid breakdown of enterprise level applications, it is crucial to test the application’s lifecycle and ensure flawless performance irrespective of changes in data sets.

Maintains Data Quality

Integrity and quality of data is immensely vital for an organization’s growth and attaining overall business objectives. Big Data is increasingly getting popular today, as it empowers enterprises and top management folks to take informed decisions based on historical as well as contemporary data points. Testing these business critical applications helps you avoid duplicity and redundancy with the data sources.

Strengthens Credibility & Performance of Data

The effectiveness and performance of Big Data applications depends on the accuracy and authenticity of the existing data available within an enterprise. Big Data testing involves verification of these data layers, data sets, algorithms, and logic. This efficiently ensures performance of business critical Big Data applications.

Authenticates Real-time data

As mentioned earlier, real-time sourcing of data defines the effectiveness of Big Data application for enterprises. Performance testing of the required data is important to confirm its operational efficiency in real-time. Time is the key word and testing is the only mechanism to determine the ‘time’ factor.

Digitizing data

Organizations across the world have data stored in hard copies, which needs to be cleaned and digitized. Testing helps to scrupulously assess and ensure that no data is not corrupted or lost. The data is converted into various digital formats as per the organization’s requirements. This further ensures availability of essential data in real-time and optimize the processes.

Checks Consistency

When data is digitized, it gets converts into various formats. With Big Data applications and predictive analysis, there are chances of inconsistency over a period of time. Testing brings down these disparities, thus reducing uncertainty.

A comprehensive Big Data and Predictive Analytics strategy enables enterprises to be more analytical in their approach, ensuring higher ROI. Today, enterprises are rapidly seeking Big Data and Analytics solutions. It is predicted by market research firms that the utilities, healthcare and BFSI sectors will bring fastest revenue growth in Big Data and Business Analytics.

Collaborating with the right partner is the need of the hour. Gallop has worked with global enterprises to devise a resourceful Big Data Testing strategy. Connect with our experts and understand the various facets of Big data testing.




The opinions expressed in this blog are author's and don't necessarily represent Gallop's positions, strategies or opinions.